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Sports Management Research: Media Examples

Films (DVD / Blu-Ray / Streaming)

If you are citing a direct quotation from a film, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation.


Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Film]. Production Company.


Bier, S. (Director). (2018). Bird box [Film]. Netflix; Chris Morgan Productions; Dylan Clark Productions.

(Bier, 2018, 16:30)

Guggenheim, D. (Director). (2006). An inconvenient truth [Film]. Lawrence Bender Productions; Participant Productions.

(Guggenheim, 2006, 23:13)

Haggis, P. (Director). (2004). Crash [Film; director's cut on DVD]. Bob Yari Productions; DEJ Productions; Blackfriars Bridge; Harris Company; ApolloProScreen Productions; Bull's Eye Entertainment.

(Haggis, 2004)

Note: If the edition of the film you used is important, such as a special extended edition, include that in the brackets.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.12 (examples 84-85); Film and Television References [APA Style]

Online Videos (e.g. YouTube, TED)

Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).


Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Full Name

Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube.

(Jones, 2009, 1:15)

Example 2: User Name Only

Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube.

(Vercamath, 2011)

Example 3: TED Talk

Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences.

(Gavagan, 2012)

TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube.

(TED, 2016)

Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.

Sources: Publication Manual, 9.8 and 10.12 (examples 88 and 90); YouTube Video References; TED Talk References [APA Style]

Films on Demand

The library database Films on Demand may contain different types of videos, including full films and television episodes. You will usually not be able to identify a director for a video; begin with the title in that case. Identify as many of the components as you are able.

Film Template

Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Film]. Production Company.

Title of video [Film]. (Year). Production Company.

Film Example

My brain and I [Film]. (2012). ORF.

(My Brain, 2012)

Episode Template

Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. (Year). In Title of series. Production Company.

Television Example

The Vikings, from Paris to Normandy (Season 3) [TV series episode]. (2019). In Butterfly effect. Balanga.

("The Vikings," 2019)

Publication Manual, 10.2 (example 84)

Television Episodes


Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. In C. C. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV Show. Production Company.


Moffat, S. (Writer) & Macdonald, H. (Director). (2007, June 9). Blink (Season 3, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In R. T. Davies (Executive Producer), Doctor who. BBC Studios.

(Moffat & Macdonald, 2007)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.12 (example 87); Film and Television References [APA Style]


It is preferable to locate a speech in a retrievable source (e.g. in a book, website, video, etc.), and then cite that source.

Example 1: In a Book

Safire, W. (Ed.). (1997). Lend me your ears: Great speeches in history. W.W. Norton.

(Safire, 1997)

Example 2: Transcript on the Internet

King, M. J., Jr. (n.d.). The I have a dream speech [Speech transcript]. The U.S. Constitution Online. (Original work published 1963)

(King, n.d.)

Example 3: YouTube Video

EDM is LIFE. (2017, January 6). I have a dream speech full video - Martin Luther King, Jr [Video]. YouTube.

(EDM is LIFE, 2017)

Example 4: From Vital Speeches of the Day

Manschreck, C. L. (1971). My conscience is bound by the word of God. Vital Speeches of the Day, 37(17), 540–545.

(Manschreck, 1971)

Example 5: Audio Recording

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric.

(King, 1963)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 96); Transcript of an Audiovisual Work References [APA Style]


Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication.


Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx


Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central.

(Miller, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 95)



Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (No. XX)  [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Production Company. http://xxxxx


Mars, R. (Host). (2019, September 30). The help-yourself city (No. 375) [Audio podcast episode]. In 99% invisible. Radiotopia.

(Mars, 2019)

You may also cite the transcript of a podcast episode.

Vedantam, S. (2019, July 22). Facts aren't enough: The psychology of false beliefs [Audio podcast transcript]. In Hidden brain. NPR.

(Vedantam, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (examples 93-94); Transcript of an Audiovisual Work References [APA Style]

Music Recordings


Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Label. (Original work published Year).

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of album [Album]. Label. (Original work published Year).


Destiny's Child. (1999). Say my name [Song]. On The writing's on the wall. Columbia.

(Destiny's Child, 1999, 0:43)

Joel, B. (1978). 52nd street. Columbia.

(Joel, 1978)

Sources: Publication Manual, 10.13 (examples 91-92)

Musical Score


Composer, A. A., & Librettist, B. B. (Year). Title of score [Type of Score]. Website. http://xxxxx (Original work published XXXX)


Beethoven, L. van. (1810). Fur Elise [Musical score]. 8Notes.

(Beethoven, 1810)

Source: Musical Score References [APA Style]


You may also need to include an image attribution if reproducing the image in your paper; see Figures & Images.


Author (Year). Title of image [Photograph]. Website. http://xxxxx


Science in HD. (n.d.). Living large [Photograph]. Unsplash.

(Science in HD, n.d.)

Source: Clip Art or Stock Image References [APA Style]